[6] The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. [102] Governor Wolf subsequently assigned the PWSA to be under the oversight of the Public Utilities Commission (PUC).[101]. The southern, western, and northern areas of the city are primarily residential. Carnegie Museum of Art. [a], The steps of Pittsburgh consist of 800 sets of outdoor public stairways with 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne. yunz], a blended form of "you ones," similar to "y'all" and "you all" in the South). Natural gas is provided by Equitable Gas, Columbia Gas, Dominion Resources, Direct Energy, and Novec. The oldest U.S. course in continuous use, Foxburg Country Club dating from 1887 calls the region home. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. Duquesne, Carnegie Mellon University, and Washington & Jefferson College all posted major bowl games and AP Poll rankings from the 1920s to the 1940s as that era's equivalent of Top 25 FBS programs. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22million coal bushels yearly. The West End includes Mt. WebPittsburgh, city, seat (1788) of Allegheny county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. [156] Annie Dillard, a Pulitzer Prizewinning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. [168] Many restaurants were favorably mentioned, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield, Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield, and Rolling Pepperoni in Lawrenceville. The Pirates play in PNC Park. Established in 2017. City of Pittsburgh - Announcements, Special Events, Press Releases, City Permits, Careers, Pay your taxes, view Burgh's Eye View and more! Also in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, the Community College of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science. [17][18] The Economist's Global Liveability Ranking placed Pittsburgh as the most or second-most livable city in the United States in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2018. The city anchors the Pittsburgh metropolitan area of Western Pennsylvania; its population of 2.37 million is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 27th-largest in the U.S. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s. The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. The Pittsburgh Pirates rarely sign talent from the island of Cuba. WebPittsburgh is home to three professional teams (the Steelers, Penguins, and Pirates) as well as numerous NCAA Division I and II sports teams, and you will never find more devoted fans than Pittsburghers! ", "ALCOSAN More Than Doubling Wastewater Treatment Plant To Diminish Sewage Overflows", "EPA, Alcosan near agreement on sewage-control plan", "Gov. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays. The city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,[58] and four main areas surrounding it. The lone monitor used is immediately downwind and adjacent to U.S. Steel's Clairton Coke Works, the nation's largest coke mill, and several municipalities outside the city's jurisdiction of pollution controls, leading to possible confusion that Pittsburgh is the source or center of the emissions cited in the survey. [144][149], Since 2012, Pittsburgh has been the home of Hot Mass, an afterhours electronic music dance party which critics have compared favorably to European nightclubs and parties. The Bus System lines are labeled by number and letter. Discover local favorites and only-in-Pittsburgh attractions, learn more about the citys art and music communities, explore the regions pet-friendly offerings, plan for the perfect outdoor excursion and so much more. Arnold Palmer Regional Airport also provides limited commercial passenger service and is 44 miles (71km) east of Pittsburgh. [16], In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world" by Metropolis magazine. It is also home to many parks and public spaces including Mellon Park, Westinghouse Park, Schenley Park, Frick Park, The Frick Pittsburgh, Bakery Square, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. [27], The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. Pittsburgh is the birthplace of Gertrude Stein and Rachel Carson, a Chatham University graduate from the suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania. The pipes were constructed in the early 1900s, and the sewage treatment plant was built in 1959. The Duquesne University Red Masquers, founded in 1912, are the oldest, continuously producing theater company in Pennsylvania. Honda HRR2168VKA 21 Self Propelled Lawn Mower with MicroCut Twin Blades. Pittsburgh has an area of 58.3 square miles (151km2), of which 55.6 square miles (144km2) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3km2), or 4.75%, is water. Pittsburgh has a combined sewer system, where its sewage pipes contain both stormwater and wastewater. Follow our winter guide to the Burgh and discover everything from outdoor adventure to indoor fun.. [242] Pittsburgh Regional Transit runs a network of intracity and intercity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline Funicular railway (more commonly known as an "incline") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems. [123] A National Bureau of Economic Research 2014 report named Pittsburgh the second-best U.S. city for intergenerational economic mobility[124] or the American Dream. Pittsburgh launched the nation's first high school all-star game in 1965. The convergence is at Point State Park and is referred to as "the Point." By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 2017, Anthrocon drew over 7,000 visitors and has had a cumulative economic impact of $53million over the course of its 11 years of being hosted in Pittsburgh.[138]. [34][35][36][37], During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. 311 PGH PARKING PUBLIC SAFETY DOG LICENSE ANIMAL CONTROL MAPS: GIS, ZONING CITY SCHOOLS PRESS RELEASES SHELTER PERMIT TAX INFO OPEN DATA BID 23% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. CSX, the other major freight railroad in the eastern U.S. also has major operations around Pittsburgh. [14] Google, Apple, Bosch, Meta, Nokia, Autodesk, Amazon, Microsoft, and IBM are among some 1,600 technology firms with a presence in the city, generating $20.7billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission, and has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia. [e] Pittsburgh is the only city in the United States where this practice of sharing team colors in solidarity takes place. Railroad lines were built into the city along both rivers, increasing transportation access to important markets. [181], "Rails to Trails", has converted miles of former rail tracks to recreational trails, including a Pittsburgh-Washington D.C. bike/walking trail. The 45-mile-long and 70-mile-long expressway sections of Pennsylvania Route 28 and U.S. Route 22 also carry traffic from downtown to the northeast and western suburbs, respectively. The schedule for the concerts in the city is revised daily. WebPittsburgh is one of the hottest locations for concert tours in the US. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. [64] East Carson Street has developed as one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, vibrant nightlife, and live music venues. Common Pittsburghese terms are: "slippy" (slippery), "redd up" (clean up), "jagger bush" (thorn bush), and "gum bands" (rubber bands). The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd-largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.). Pittsburgh is the second-largest city in the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. The many local peculiarities have prompted The New York Times to describe Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect". The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh City Council, and various boards and commissions. Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The Cathedral of Learning's Nationality Rooms showcase pre-19th century learning environments from around the world. Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a Los Angeles-based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the eastern United States.[136]. [33], During Pontiac's War, a loose confederation of Native American tribes laid siege to Fort Pitt in 1763; the siege was eventually lifted after Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated a portion of the besieging force at the Battle of Bushy Run. Lights, cameras : Action at a new studio keeps Pittsburgh on film, Pa. film studio to feature 'Avatar' technology, "Invention convention INPEX gathers in Pittsburgh", Wiz Khalifa "Black & Yellow" Hits Number One, We Found Love Rihanna Featuring Calvin Harris, "Here's An Infographic of the Most Metal Cities in America", "Black Forge Coffee House opening McKees Rocks location next week", "How The Internet Transformed The American Rave Scene", "Hot Mass: Rebuilding Pittsburgh's Dance Music Culture", "Police out to crash drug-laced 'rave' parties", "S. Siders raving over rink's late parties: Sleep-starved residents giving Ricciardi an earful", "Word of rave performance resulted in added police", "Nonprogressive portrayals - Letters to the editor", "How America's Standout Party Hot Mass Is Changing Pittsburgh", "The Secret Techno Sex Parties of Pittsburgh", "August Wilson | Biography, Plays, Movies, Ma Rainey, & Facts | Britannica", "Presidential biographer gets presidential medal", "SAVINI.COM: The Official Tom Savini Home page", "PARSEC: Pittsburgh's Premiere Science Fiction Organization", "Revenant: The Premiere Zombie Magazine Features", "Write or Die: A Science Fiction & Fantasy Writing Group", "The SF Site: A Conversation With Mary Soon Lee", "Pittsburgh named 2019 Food City by hospitality consulting firm", "Here's how Pittsburgh has earned the title of 2019 Food City of the Year", "Huge flood-control cost, planning mess put Southwestern Pennsylvania in bind Pittsburgh Tribune-Review", "Damage repaired, trauma remains after 2004 floods", "Water Quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, and Maryland, 199698", "The historic St. Patrick's Day Flood of 1936: two eyewitness accounts", "Black & Gold mettle: Pittsburgh Is Best Sports City", "Why Pittsburgh's teams wear black and gold", "Ray Rice said he wasn't being disrespectful to Steelers' Terrible Towel, apologizes", "Pittsburgh Steelers Owner: Art Rooney net worth, political donations - Sports Illustrated", "Pittsburgh Power unveiled as arena football expansion team", "Mellon Arena roof may open for final show", "Pittsburgh loves ice skating, but how many rinks might prove too many? Outside of the city limits, Dormont and Mount Oliver are Pittsburgh's most densely-populated neighborhoods, with 11,167 and 9,902 people per square mile respectively. Follow our winter guide to the Burgh and discover everything from outdoor adventure to indoor fun.. He was 93. WebThe Weather Watcher Network is a way for you to join the KDKA Weather Team. What is known today as Pittsburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City, and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh until it was merged with Pittsburgh in 1907 under great protest from its citizens. Hundreds of major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh. Bouquet strengthened the defenses of Fort Pitt the next year. [22][23] Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act:[24] [98] The local sewage authority, Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, or ALCOSAN, is operating under Consent Decree from the EPA to come up with solutions. WebGet inspired for your next safe getaway to Pittsburgh with our Official Visitors Guide. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3.9mi (6.3km), while 11% travel for over 7.5mi (12km) in a single direction.[240]. [192] Pro-grade ice rinks such as the Rostraver Ice Garden, Mt. [90] ACHD spokesman Guillermo Cole stated "It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years, or more. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758. This district contains many theaters and arts venues and is home to a growing residential segment. City of Pittsburgh - Announcements, Special Events, Press Releases, City Permits, Careers, Pay your taxes, view Burgh's Eye View and more! [14] Pitt is known for the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh College of Business Administration, University of Pittsburgh School of Law, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work, and other biomedical and health-related sciences.[205][206][207][208][209]. Hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets farm team (19361967) and their seven finals appearances and three championships in 18 playoff seasons. The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine. [134] Area retail is anchored by over 35 shopping malls and a healthy downtown retail sector, as well as boutique shops along Walnut Street, in Squirrel Hill, Lawrenceville and Station Square. Pittsburgh is home to one of the several state licensed casinos. [229], The $80million ($126million today) UPMC Sports Performance Complex for the Pittsburgh Panthers & Pittsburgh Steelers opened in 2000. Pittsburgh police have arrested two suspects in connection with a Carrick shooting that left one man dead. Griffith, Hardesty, and Trento revealed a new device after a heart-lung transplant. By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Penns were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois. Other agencies also provide police protection within the city because of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries. Robert Morris University fields a Division I college hockey team at the Island Sports Center. Pittsburgh has a rich history in arts and culture dating from 19th century industrialists commissioning and donating public works, such as Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts and the Benedum Center, home to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra and Pittsburgh Opera, respectively as well as such groups as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra. [127] Pittsburgh's transition from its industrial heritage has earned it praise as "the poster child for managing industrial transition". Find your favorite Music event tickets, schedules, and seating charts in Pittsburgh. At the 2010 census, there were 305,704 people residing in Pittsburgh, a decrease of 8.6% since 2000; 66.0% of the population was White, 25.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Other, and 2.3% mixed; in 2020, 2.3% of Pittsburgh's population was of Hispanic or Latino American origin of any race. [9] Deindustrialization in the 1970s and 1980s laid off area blue-collar workers as steel and other heavy industries declined, and thousands of downtown white-collar workers also lost jobs when several Pittsburgh-based companies moved out. In 1865 Andrew Carnegie opened the Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works which manufactured for the industry until 1919. The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. [39][40] William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk.[41]. Downtown's cultural district hosts quarterly Gallery Crawls and the annual Three Rivers Arts Festival. From the hip and trendy to quiet and secluded, the perfect neighborhood (s) are waiting for you to discover. He was 93. By 1797, glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1,400. [5] Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its dominant role in the history of the U.S. steel industry, and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges. Pittsburgh Panthers women's basketball has qualified for 14 post season tournaments (including 4 NCAA tournaments) and boasts of 5 All-Americans selected 6 times with 3 WNBA players. Pittsburgh ( / ptsbr / PITS-burg) is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County. In addition, in 1971 the Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-minority lineup. The Pittsburgh Penguins woke up in the third period but couldnt get to overtime against the Carolina Hurricanes. CNN . The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team's founding in 1933, show consistency in coaching (only three coaches since the 1960s all with the same basic philosophy) and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises. Sewickely Heights is seen as one of Pittsburgh's wealthiest suburbs culturally as well, titles which the suburbs of Upper St. Clair, Fox Chapel, Wexford, and Warrendale also have been bestowed. [22] The Pittsburgh Press continued without the h in its nameplate until August 1, 1921. Get 100% guaranteed tickets for all upcoming events in Pittsburgh at the lowest possible price. WebOnly in Pittsburgh. The Hill District was home to photographer Charles Harris as well as various African-American jazz clubs. [21], French Empire 16691758British Empire 16811781United States 1776present, Pittsburgh was named in 1758, by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. [217] According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 124 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including The Mothman Prophecies, Wonder Boys,[218] Dogma,[218] Hoffa, The Silence of the Lambs,[218] Sudden Death, Flashdance,[218] Southpaw, Striking Distance, Mrs. Soffel, Jack Reacher, Inspector Gadget, The Next Three Days, The Perks of Being a Wallflower,[218] Zack and Miri Make a Porno, and Fences. Downtown Pittsburgh has 30 skyscrapers, nine of which top 500 feet (150m). Given the process of appointing nominees with the approval of council it is the belief of the administration that these safeguards are sufficient to eliminate other special considerations when naming [61], It is also home to Point Park University and Duquesne University which borders Uptown..mw-parser-output .ambox{border:1px solid #a2a9b1;border-left:10px solid #36c;background-color:#fbfbfb;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .ambox+link+.ambox,.mw-parser-output .ambox+link+style+.ambox,.mw-parser-output .ambox+link+link+.ambox,.mw-parser-output .ambox+.mw-empty-elt+link+.ambox,.mw-parser-output .ambox+.mw-empty-elt+link+style+.ambox,.mw-parser-output .ambox+.mw-empty-elt+link+link+.ambox{margin-top:-1px}html body.mediawiki .mw-parser-output .ambox.mbox-small-left{margin:4px 1em 4px 0;overflow:hidden;width:238px;border-collapse:collapse;font-size:88%;line-height:1.25em}.mw-parser-output .ambox-speedy{border-left:10px solid #b32424;background-color:#fee7e6}.mw-parser-output .ambox-delete{border-left:10px solid #b32424}.mw-parser-output .ambox-content{border-left:10px solid #f28500}.mw-parser-output .ambox-style{border-left:10px solid #fc3}.mw-parser-output .ambox-move{border-left:10px solid #9932cc}.mw-parser-output .ambox-protection{border-left:10px solid #a2a9b1}.mw-parser-output .ambox .mbox-text{border:none;padding:0.25em 0.5em;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .ambox .mbox-image{border:none;padding:2px 0 2px 0.5em;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .ambox .mbox-imageright{border:none;padding:2px 0.5em 2px 0;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .ambox .mbox-empty-cell{border:none;padding:0;width:1px}.mw-parser-output .ambox .mbox-image-div{width:52px}html.client-js body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .mbox-text-span{margin-left:23px!important}@media(min-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .ambox{margin:0 10%}}, The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. The Weather Watcher Network is a way for you to join the KDKA Weather Team. Summers are hot and winters are moderately cold with wide variations in temperature. It is considered the birthplace of the national Republican Party,[199] as the party held its first convention here in February 1856. Interstate 70, 79 and 76 (the Turnpike) roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway" with Interstate 68 and 80 within the media market's northern and southern limits. Located on historic Walnut Street in Pittsburgh's Shadyside Neighborhood, Acorn is a Modern American restaurant with meticulous sourcing and The federal government recognizes Pittsburgh as the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Pittsburgh Penguins woke up in the third period but couldnt get to overtime against the Carolina Hurricanes. [226] In 1984, Allegheny General surgeons pioneered modern brain surgery. Their September pennant race in 1997 featured the franchises' last no-hitter and last award for Sporting News' Executive of the Year. NPR's December 2010: "From Steel to Tech, Pittsburgh transforms itself", National Cyber-Forensics & Training Alliance's "Contact Us", National Robotics Engineering Center's "History", Pittsburgh employment numbers better than similar cities, Growth of jobs locally bucks nationwide trend, Pittsburgh region sees 11th consecutive month of home sales increases, Survival Lesson in Pittsburgh: Shedding an Industrial Past, Pittsburghs new housing boom stays strong, "The Metropolis Guide to the Best Cities to Live, Work, and Play in (2015)", "Pittsburgh Named One of the Most Livable Cities in the World", "A Summary of the Liveability Ranking and OverviewAugust 2014", "These are the top 10 most liveable cities in America", Pittsburgh Is Emerald City with Dozens of Energy-Efficient Buildings, Natural gas locked in the Marcellus Shale has companies rushing to cash in on possibilities, Pitt: Land leased for oil, gas up 322 percent, Chevron to Buy Atlas Energy for $4.3 Billion, CONSOL Energy to Acquire Dominion's Appalachian E&P Business for $3.475 Billion In Cash, "An ACT to erect the town of Pittsburgh ", Full text of "The county court for the district of West Augusta, Virginia, held at Augusta town, near Washington, Pennsylvania, 17761777", "A brief history of Greene County and its courts: a struggle for possession", "Pittsburgh recognized as starting point for Lewis and Clark expedition", "Lewis & Clark started here (sorry, St. Louis)", "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990", "Kids' Corner: 1910-30 saw huge black migration", "The Pittsburgh Press Google News Archive Search", "Cartoonist draws, fires a blank with Pittsburgh joke", "Learning the steps: Pitt researcher fell for city's stairs and has published a book that maps them", "Vintage Map of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1902 - Ted's Vintage Art", "Rising home prices tell Pittsburgh's uplifting story", "American Eagle Outfitters Announces Pittsburgh's SouthSide Works Location As New Corporate Headquarters", "Pittsburgh Strong: Historic Tribute to a Vibrant Jewish Community", "'Smoketown' Traces The Rise And Fall Of The Other Great Black Renaissance In Pittsburgh", "Steel city an unlikely haven for writers", "America's 11 Best Cities for Telecommuters", "In Pittsburgh, the 'Paris of the Appalachians,' they're not buying Trump's climate talk", "Updated world map of the Kppen-Geiger climate classification", "Photos: Ten most chill major cities in the summertime -- and where Denver places", "WMO Climate Normals for PITTSBURGH/GR PITTSBURGH INTL,PA 19611990", "Pittsburgh Historical Snowfall Totals 1883 to Current", "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data", "Air Quality in Pittsburgh Metro Area Worsened for both Ozone and Particle Pollution, Finds 2019 'State of the Air' Report", American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 Most Polluted Cities, "Report: Pittsburgh's air quality improving, but still among most polluted", "Allegheny County and Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA", "Pittsburgh Air Quality No Longer Worst in U.S.", "Smell PGH lets you report weird smells in Pittsburgh", "Tree on the Corner May Be Worth More Than Your House", "New Report Finds Industrial Pollution Flowing Illegally into PA Rivers", "Peduto forges ahead to restructure PWSA leadership", "Raw sewage flows into Pittsburgh's rivers. Pittsburgh, city, seat (1788) of Allegheny county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. WebPittsburgh is the second-largest city in the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. The station has produced much original content for PBS, including Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, several National Geographic specials, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?[215]. 1 in the nation as recently as 2009. The Gladiators hosted ArenaBowl I in the city, competing in two, but losing both before moving to Tampa, Florida and becoming the Storm. [44] The Merchant's Hotel was also a place where African-American workers would advise slaves the state was free and aid them in getting to nearby stations of the Underground Railroad. In the later 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics.